Evolution Chapter 16 Hints

HINT 16A: It is easier to work with the frequency of the native allele, qt = 1 – pt.

HINT 16B: The rate of immigration, m, now varies from generation to generation: It is m = 10/20 for one generation in ten.

HINT 16C: Use the same method as that used in Box 16.1.

HINT 16D: The same argument as above holds, except at the center.

HINT 16E: See pp. 442–443.

HINT 16F: With neutral mixing, cline width after t generations is (see Fig. 16.6).

HINT 16G: The observed variance in allele frequency will be increased by the sampling variance, which is pq/2n for a sample of n diploid individuals from a population with actual allele frequencies p,q.

HINT 16H: See Box 15.2.

HINT 16I: QST is expected to equal FST (see p. 446).

HINT 16J: Every deme traces its ancestry back through a single deme, and so there is no mixing.

HINT 16K: Think about the effect of random extinction and recolonization on overall mean allele frequency.

HINT 16L: If empty patches are colonized from the population as a whole, they will immediately return to the overall average allele frequency, p.

HINT 16M: The mean coalescence time for two genes from the same deme is TW = 2nNe, assuming conservative migration (p. 449).

HINT 16N: Assume Hardy–Weinberg proportions.

HINT 16O: Linkage disequilibrium, D, is defined as the difference between the frequency of haploid genomes carrying the combination of alleles {sd,cr}, and the product of the frequencies of the separate alleles.

HINT 16P: If the allele frequencies are assumed to be the same at all 25 loci, the number of red alleles follows a binomial distribution. (See Chapter 28.)

HINT 16Q: The F1 has 25 red alleles, the first backcross generation half that on average, and so on.

HINT 16R: Estimate the rate at which F1s are produced.