HINT 16A: It is easier to work with the frequency of the native allele, *q*_{t} = 1 – *p*_{t}.

HINT 16B: The rate of immigration, *m*, now varies from generation to generation: It is *m* = 10/20 for one generation in ten.

HINT 16C: Use the same method as that used in Box 16.1.

HINT 16D: The same argument as above holds, except at the center.

HINT 16E: See pp. 442–443.

HINT 16F: With neutral mixing, cline width after *t* generations is (see Fig. 16.6).

HINT 16G: The observed variance in allele frequency will be increased by the sampling variance, which is *pq*/2*n* for a sample of *n* diploid individuals from a population with actual allele frequencies *p*,*q*.

HINT 16H: See Box 15.2.

HINT 16I: *Q*_{ST} is expected to equal *F*_{ST} (see p. 446).

HINT 16J: Every deme traces its ancestry back through a single deme, and so there is no mixing.

HINT 16K: Think about the effect of random extinction and recolonization on overall mean allele frequency.

HINT 16L: If empty patches are colonized from the population as a whole, they will immediately return to the overall average allele frequency, *p*.

HINT 16M: The mean coalescence time for two genes from the same deme is *T*_{W} = 2*nN*_{e}, assuming conservative migration (p. 449).

HINT 16N: Assume Hardy–Weinberg proportions.

HINT 16O: Linkage disequilibrium, *D*, is defined as the difference between the frequency of haploid genomes carrying the combination of alleles {*sd,cr*}, and the product of the frequencies of the separate alleles.

HINT 16P: If the allele frequencies are assumed to be the same at all 25 loci, the number of red alleles follows a **binomial distribution**. (See Chapter 28.)

HINT 16Q: The F_{1} has 25 red alleles, the first backcross generation half that on average, and so on.

HINT 16R: Estimate the rate at which F_{1}s are produced.