Chapter 6 Notes
Diversification of Bacteria and Archaea. I: Phylogeny and Biology
The best introduction to microbes and their diversity is in the textbook series, Brock Biology of Microorganisms.
There are also a number of excellent web resources, including websites and some textbooks that are available online.
An excellent web resource is Microbeworld presented by American Society for Microbiology. There are discussions of different types of microbes, a history of microbial studies, resources for educators, and much more.
Another good web resource can be found here.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides online access to a number of textbooks. One microbiology textbook they have, which contains lots of information related to this chapter, is Medical Microbiology, 4th edition, edited by Samuel Baron (1996).
The Department of Bacteriology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides a microbiology web textbook.
Introduction to the Bacteria and Archaea
Bacteria Share Many Key Features
The microbiology textbooks and web sites mentioned above are the best places to look for general information. For more detail on specific topics introduced in this section, some good reviews are as follows.
The Archaea, although Unique in Many Ways, Share Some Features with Bacteria and Others with Eukaryotes
A classic paper that compares bacteria and archaea is by Zillig (1991).
Not all archaea are extremophiles. This is made clear in a paper by DeLong (1998).
Several notable reviews of archaeal histones, chromatin, and transcription are Bell and Jackson (2001), White and Bell (2002), and Reeve (2003).
Cell membranes and wall polymers in Archaea are discussed by Kandler and König (1998).
Archaea are extremely diverse in both size and shape. Two papers on unusual archaea are Kessel and Cohen (1982), who describe square-celled halophiles, and Huber et al. (2002), who examine nanosized organisms.
Phylogenetic Diversification of Bacteria and Archaea
The Only Reliable Way to Infer the Phylogenetic History of Bacteria and Archaea Is by Molecular Systematics
An excellent overview of the changes in prokaryotic systematics and phylogeny is by Woese (2000).
A key paper in the reclassification of Deinococcus is the 16s rRNA study done by Weisburg et al. (1989).
Differences between the Rickettsia and Chlamydia lineages are discussed by Zomorodipour and Andersson (1999).
Bacteria and Archaea Have Been Split into Many Distinct Subdivisions
The best reference books for details about the bacterial and archaeal groups are The Prokaryotes (Dworkin 2006) and Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (Garrity 2001).
Molecular Approaches Allow Microbes to be Studied in the Environment
The great plate count anomaly is discussed in Staley and Konopka (1985).
Two good reviews on uncultured microorganisms and the positive impact of molecular phylogenetic studies on understanding microbial diversity are Hugenholtz et al. (1998a) and Rappe and Giovannoni (2003).
rRNA sequencing before the advent of PCR sequencing is described in Lane et al. (1985).
PCR sequencing of rRNA is reviewed in Hugenholtz et al. (1998a).
The best example of finding novel phyla using a molecular phylogenetic survey is described in Hugenholtz et al. (1998b). They surveyed Obsidian Pool, a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park.
Genome Sequencing Allows the Biology of Uncultured Microbes to be Predicted
The term metagenomics was coined by Handelsman et al. (1998); see also Handelsman (2004).
An excellent overview of metagenomics is the book The New Science of Metagenomics: Revealing the Secrets of Our Microbial Planet (Committee on Metagenomics 2007), which can be read online at no charge.
Phylogenetic anchors and rhodopsin are discussed by Béjà et al. (2000, 2001).
A good review of environmental shotgun sequencing is Eisen (2007). The first papers in this field were Tyson et al. (2004) and Venter et al. (2004).
Biological Diversification of Bacteria and Archaea
Many Bacteria and Archaea Thrive in Extreme Environments
A good review of microbial extremophiles is in Rothschild and Mancinelli (2001).
A discussion of the challenges in inferring the growth temperature of LUCA is in Galtier et al. (1999).
An overview of microbial adaptations to growth at extreme temperature is Saunders et al. (2003).
The role of specific amino acid changes in these microbial adaptations to temperature is examined in a number of papers, including Haney et al. (1999), Kreil and Ouzonis (2001), and Nakashima et al. (2003).
Adaptations of halophiles are discussed in Oren (2008) and Paul et al. (2008).
Bacteria and Archaea Have Evolved an Enormous Variety in Biochemical Reactions
A good review on the discovery of a fifth pathway of carbon fixation is by Thauer (2007).
Bryant and Frigaard (2006) provide a good review of phototrophy.
Bacteria and Archaea Have Diverse Types of Interactions with Other Species: Mutualism, Parasitism, and Sociality
Among the many reviews of symbiosis involving microorganisms are Moran and Baumann (2000) and Moran (2006).
A good description of the photoautotroph Prochloron can be found on MicrobeWiki.
Chemoautotrophs are reviewed in Stewart et al. (2005).
An example of a study of nutritional symbionts is Wu et al. (2006).
A good review of microbial symbiosis in the human intestine is Ley et al. (2006).
Cavicchioli et al. (2003) muse over whether pathogenic Archaea may exist.
For a review of genomic insights into virulence, see Raskin et al. (2006).
A discussion of the evolution of virulence factors can be found in Brown et al. (2006).
Pathogenicity islands are reviewed in Hacker and Kaper (2000).
Symbiosis islands are described in Sullivan and Ronson (1998).
A comparison of symbiosis and pathogenicity is in Hentschel et al. (2000).
A good review of quorum sensing by the people who first described it is Waters and Bassler (2005).
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